10 gI Outline of Japanese School Systemh Previous Next JAPANESE
I Outline of Japanese School System
The management of public elementary schools is left to the municipal boards of education as founders. However, the state (MEXT) and prefectures (the boards of education) exercise authority mainly in educational personnel management (personnel administration) and curriculum management (guidance administration). This type of management is called a multistory structure.
Educational personnel are categorized as municipal officials. However, municipal boards of education have limited rights. These include submission of personnel reports on teachersf service and supervision of teachersf service to prefectural boards of education on personnel. Prefectures handle personnel matters including appointment and dismissal, the quorum and the emolument burden. Furthermore, the state (MEXT) assumes financial responsibility for 1/2 of actual emoluments and outlays for teachers supported through prefectural funds based on the System of the National Treasury's Share of Compulsory Education Expenditures. Following the revision of the Course of Study in 2002, educational contents are primarily left to each schoolfs discretion. However, determination of the criteria and the character of the Course of Study and the administrative framework for textbook authorization have been retained by the state. In many cases, prefectural boards of education organize estandard curriculum,f and help shoulder the guidance administration function through their roles as supervisors of small municipalities.

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