14 gI Outline of Japanese School Systemh Previous Next JAPANESE
I Outline of Japanese School System
The management of public elementary schools is left to municipal boards of education as founders. However, the state (MEXT) and prefectures (the boards of education) exercise authority mainly in the area of educational personnel management (personnel administration) and curriculum management (guidance administration). This is called a multistory structure.
Educational personnel are categorized as municipal officials. However, municipal boards of education have limited rights; they submit reports on teachersf service and on supervision of teachersf service to prefectural boards of education on personnel (Teachers whose salaries are given by prefecture/II-28). Prefectures have responsibilities over personnel affairs, including appointment and dismissal, the quorum and the emolument (financing) burden. The state (MEXT) finances 1/2 of actual emoluments of teachers supported also by prefectural funds based on the System of the National Treasury's Share of Compulsory Education Expenditures (/‡U-32). Following the revision of the Course of Study in 2002, the educational contents are primarily left to each schoolfs discretion. However, determination of the criteria and character of the Course of Study and handling of the administrative frameworks for textbook authorization have been retained by the state. In many cases, prefectural boards of education organize estandard curriculum,f and and also handle the guidance administration function as educational supervisors of small municipalities.

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