| In this slide, the genealogy of the national law in statute form is briefly explained. Japanfs supreme law is the Constitution. The government ordinance is issued by the cabinet to utilize laws that are formed through concrete deliberations of the Congress, The ministerial ordinance is an order from the Ministers of State of each ministry or government office. For instance, in the School Education Law, the enforcement regulations of the School Education Law consist of ministerial ordinances. In the ministerial ordinance, the criteria for establishment of schools and textbook authorization are included. The official notice, directive, and the notice / circular on the top right corner of the figure are issued by Ministers of State. However, when compared to ministerial ordinances which have legislative restraints, these alternatives carry legislative restraints. Therefore, penalties or sanctions arenft applied if they are violated. Though the Course of Study is the directive, the administrators of curriculums who donft follow the Course of Study are likely to be punished for violations of the enforcement regulations of the School Education Law, which provide that a curriculum has to be in line with the Course of Study.