|13||gI Outline of Japanese School Systemh||Previous||Next||JAPANESE|
| Lower secondary schools were established following the extension of compulsory education from 6 years to 9 years under post-war educational reforms of compulsory schools. Lower secondary education consolidated advanced courses of national elementary schools and youth schools existing under the old system. The objectives of lower secondary schools are to cultivate qualities essential for effective citizenship. These are based on elementary school education and cover basic information on occupations, respect for diligence and awareness of differing skills, inculcating the ability to determine courses of action along with self and emotional control and a sense of fair play in social activities. (School law/VI-7)
As compulsory education, the educational contents of lower secondary schools are required to be similar. At the same time, since educational contents should have sufficient flexibility to be relevant to a studentfs courses after graduation and facilitate self growth during puberty, electives are provided.
The basis of public lower secondary school administration is similar to that in elementary schools, since both are compulsory municipal schools.